Draft Horsham District Local Plan 2019-2036


Accessible greenspace: Outdoor places, which may include bodies of water such as ponds, that are available for the general public to use free of charge and without undue time restrictions (although some sites may be closed to the public overnight and there may be fees for parking a vehicle). The places should seek to be available to all, meaning that every reasonable effort is made to comply with the requirements under the Equality Act 2010. 

Ad-Hoc Development: This is unplanned development, a reactive rather than proactive planning approach to development.

Adoption: The final confirmation of a Development Plan or Local Development Document as having statutory status by a Local Planning Authority (LPA).

Affordable Housing: Housing provided with a subsidy to enable the sale price or rent to be substantially lower than the prevailing market prices or rents in the locality, and where mechanisms exist to ensure that the housing remains affordable for those who cannot afford to access the market housing. The subsidy can be provided from the public and/or private sector. A number of different types of housing fall under the definition of 'affordable housing’.  A fuller definition of affordable housing is contained in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF).

Air Quality Management Area (AQMA): A designation made by a local authority where air quality standards are not being met, or are at risk of not being met, and people are regularly present. 

Amenity: A positive element or elements that contribute to the overall character or enjoyment of an area. For example, open land, trees, historic buildings and the inter-relationship between them, or less tangible factors such as tranquillity.

Amenity Greenspace (AGS): Are normally relatively small outdoor spaces (most are smaller than 1 ha) which help enhance visual amenity by providing an attractive "green setting" for buildings and offer space in which individuals and groups can take part in a wide variety of informal activities such as dog walking, strolling, jogging, picnicking, kite flying and kick about areas close to home.  They may include bodies of water such as a pond.

Ancillary Use: A subsidiary or secondary use or operation closely associated with the main use of a building or piece of land.

Appropriate Assessment (AA): See Habitat Regulations Assessment.

Appeal: The process whereby a planning applicant can challenge an adverse decision, indicating a refusal of permission. Appeals can also be made against the failure of the planning authority to issue a decision, against conditions attached to permission, and against the issue of an enforcement notice.

Aquifer: Underground rock layers that hold water, which are often an important source of water for public water supply, agriculture and industry.

Arboriculture: Arboriculture is the management of trees where amenity is the prime objective.

Archaeological Assessment: A study of the extent and quality of any archaeological remains that may exist within a site. The study and resulting report(s) must be performed by a suitably qualified professional and will be examined by the West Sussex County Council Archaeologist, from whom advice on the form and nature of the assessment may be sought.

Area Action Plan: See Joint Area Action Plan.

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB): A statutory landscape designation, which recognises that a particular landscape is of national importance. The primary purposed of the designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the landscape.

Around: A guide figure that is plus or minus ten percent of the figure quoted.

Authority Monitoring Report (AMR): Produced by the Council annually to review the progress made against targets and the performance of policies. The monitoring period is 1 April to 31 March each year.

Biodiversity: (Biological Diversity) The whole range and variety of life on earth. It includes all species of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genetic diversity within and between these species, and their habitats and the ecosystems of which they are part.  It can be used as a measure of the health of biological systems, and to see whether there is a danger that too many species become extinct.

Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP): A strategy prepared for a local area aimed at conserving biological diversity.

BREEAM: Standards laid down for the design and building of businesses and homes to be more sustainable, including wildlife friendly design, use of recycled materials and energy, heating and water conservation methods.

Brownfield land registers: Registers of previously developed land that local planning authorities consider to be appropriate for residential development, having regard to criteria in the Town and Country Planning (Brownfield Land Registers) Regulations 2017. Local planning authorities will be able to trigger a grant of permission in principle for residential development on suitable sites in their registers where they follow the required procedures.

Brownfield/Previously Developed Land (PDL): In the sequential approach this is preferable to Greenfield land. It is land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure (excluding agricultural or forestry buildings), and associated fixed surface infrastructure. The definition covers the curtilage of the development. Previously developed land may occur in both built-up and rural settings.

Build to Rent: Purpose built housing that is typically 100% rented out. It can form part of a wider multi-tenure development comprising either flats or houses, but should be on the same site and/or joining the main development. Schemes will usually offer longer tenancy agreements of three years or more, and will typically be professionally managed stock in single ownership and management control.

Built-up Area Boundaries (BUAB): These identify the areas in the District of primarily built form, rather than countryside. They identify areas within which development of brownfield land may normally be appropriate, including infilling, redevelopment and conversions in accordance with Government Policy and Guidance (NPPF and NPPG). They do not include a presumption for the development of greenfield land such as playing fields or other open space. Identified built-up area boundaries do not necessarily include all existing developed areas.

Carbon Neutral: Offsetting or compensating for carbon emissions (for example from burning fossil fuels) by schemes such as planting trees to absorb carbon or through careful use of design to promote energy efficiency and to avoid carbon emissions.

Change of Use: A change in the way that land or buildings are used (see Use Classes Order). Planning permission is usually necessary to change a "use class".

Character: A term relating to Conservation Areas or Listed Buildings, but also to the appearance of any rural or urban location in terms of its landscape or the layout of streets and open spaces, often giving places their own distinct identity.

Climate Change: Long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind and all other aspects of the Earth's climate exacerbated by human activity, particularly by the increase of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere due to fossil fuel consumption.

Combined Heat and Power (CHP): The combined production of heat, usually in the form of steam, and power, usually in the form of electricity.

Community Facilities: Facilities available for use by the community. Examples include village halls, doctors' surgeries, pubs, churches and children play areas; may also include areas of informal open space and sports facilities.

Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL): The Community Infrastructure Levy is a levy that local authorities in England and Wales can choose to charge on new developments in their area. The money can be used to support development by funding infrastructure that the council, local community and neighbourhoods want - for example, new or safer road schemes, park improvements or a new health centre. The Council adopted its CIL charging schedule in October 2017.

Community Land Trusts (CLT):  Are community-controlled organisations that are set up to own and manage land for the benefit of the community.

Community Right to Build Orders (CRBOs): A special type of Neighbourhood Development Order (NDO). Unlike NDOs and NDPs, any local community organisation, not just a Neighbourhood Forum, will be able to create CRBOs. To be eligible to develop a CRBO at least one half of a community organisation's members must live in the neighbourhood area. The organisation must also exist to further the economic, environmental and social well-being of the area in question, and may also be required to make provision that any profits made as a result of community right to build orders be distributed among the organisation's members.

Compulsory Purchase Order (CPO): An order issued by the Government or a local authority to acquire land or buildings for public interest purposes.

Conservation Order: Areas of special architectural or historic interest, the character, appearance or setting of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance.

Conversions: Generally means the change of use of a building from a particular use, classified in the use classes order, to another use. Can also mean the sub-division of residential properties into self-contained flats or maisonettes.

Core Indicators: Indicators measuring the direct effect of a policy. Used to assess whether policy targets have been achieved using the available information.

Curtilage: The area occupied by a property and land closely associated with that building e.g. in terms of a house and garden, the garden normally forms the curtilage of the property.

Custom Build: Custom-built homes are dwellings designed to the particular needs of an individual. Self-build development is where an individual or group directly organises the design and construction of their own home or homes.

Defensible Boundary: Examples of a defensible boundary might be a stream, road, or hedgerow.

Derelict: A building so damaged by neglect that it is incapable of beneficial use without rebuilding.

Development Plan: The statutory development plan is the starting point for the consideration of planning applications for development or use of land.

Development Plan Documents (DPD): The local planning documents which made up the Local Development Framework and now Local Plan.

Duty to Co-operate: Local authorities have a legal duty to co-operate with other bodies to ensure that strategic priorities across local boundaries are properly co-ordinated and reflected in their Local Plan. The Local Plan will be examined by an independent inspector whose role is to assess whether the plan has been prepared in accordance with the duty to cooperate, legal and procedural requirements, and whether it is sound. Although there is a legal duty to co-operate, there is no legal requirement to agree.

Ecological (or Ecology): The interactions and relationships between plants, animals and their environment.

Efficient Use of Land: Development having regard to the character of the surrounding landscape, the density of built form, capacity of local infrastructure and principles of good design.  

Enabling Development: A development that would normally be rejected as contrary to established policy, but which may be permitted because the public benefit such as affordable housing.

Examination: Public discussion of selected issues raised by respondents at the Proposed Submission/Publication stage of representations on the Local Plan document(s). The examination takes place before an independent inspector appointed by the Secretary of State reporting to the Council. For Development Plan Documents an examination is held even if there are no representations.

Exception Site: A housing site which is permitted as an exception to the policies in the Development Plan. Usually a site that is able to offer a considerable benefit such as affordable housing.

Evidence Base: Collection of baseline specific data for the District which is used to inform the development of all Local Plan policies and Supplementary Planning Documents.

Extra Care Housing: Usually consists of purpose-built or adapted flats or bungalows with a medium to high level of care available if required, through an onsite care agency registered through the Care Quality Commission (CQC). Residents are able to live independently with 24 hour access to support services and staff, and meals are also available. There are often extensive communal areas, such as space to socialise or a wellbeing centre. Farm Diversification: The introduction of non-agricultural enterprises (such as bed and breakfast) to support an existing farm business.

Flood Zones: A term used by the Environment Agency in the planning process to determine how likely somewhere is to flood. Flood Zone 1 is areas with the lowest risk of flooding where there is 0.1% chance of flooding in any year, Flood Zone 2 areas have been shown to have between 0.1%-1% chance of flooding in any year and Flood Zone 3 has the highest risk of flooding. Flood Zone 3 is split into two areas of flood risk; 3a and 3b. Areas within Flood Zone 3 have been shown to be at a 1% or greater probability of flooding from rivers or 0.5% or greater probability of flooding from the sea. Flood Zone 3b is classified as functional floodplain and is deemed to be the land most at risk of flooding from rivers or the sea.

Functional Floodplain: This is land where water has to flow or be stored in times of flood.  Local planning authorities identify functional floodplain boundaries via a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) in agreement with the Environment Agency.

Gatwick Diamond: An economic area centred on Gatwick Airport which is situated between London and Brighton. It is an important economic area for wealth generation in terms of GDP makes it one of the first choices in the UK to set up, operate and grow businesses.

Gypsy and Traveller Accommodation Assessment (GTAA): An assessment that identifies the amount of pitches and plots needed to accommodate the District’s travelling population.

Gypsy/Traveller: The government defines Gypsies and Travellers as persons of nomadic habit of life whatever their race or origin, including such persons who on grounds only of their own or their family’s or dependents’ educational or health needs or old age have ceased to travel temporarily, but excluding members of an organised group of Travelling Showpeople or circus people travelling together as such

Green Belt – A specific designation around certain towns and cities where there are greater restrictions on development than land outside these areas. They are put in place to prevent urban sprawl and settlement coalescence. There is no designated Green Belt in Horsham District or West Sussex at the current time.

Green Corridor: An area of natural or semi-natural habitat providing easy access for species of plants and animals to move from place to place. They often link areas of high wildlife value such as woodland.

Green Infrastructure: A network of multi-functional green space, urban and rural, which is capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities. It includes open spaces such as parks, amenity greenspaces, playing fields, woodlands, wetlands, grasslands, river corridors, allotments and may include bodies of water such as ponds. It can help strengthen climate change resilience, health and well-being of communities, economic vibrancy, and provide habitats and wildlife corridors as well as urban cooling.

Greenspace: Space that is covered with vegetation, for example grass, trees, wildflowers, vegetables or ornamental plants.  It may include ancillary elements of hard landscaping, including car parking, and water features.

Greenfield: Land which has not been developed before. This applies to most sites outside built-up area boundaries.

Green Travel Plan: A framework developed by businesses and organisations for changing travel habits in order to provide an environment which encourages more sustainable travel patterns and less dependence on single occupancy private car use. For example, an employer may use the plan to introduce car sharing schemes or secure cycle parking facilities. Travel Plans must have measurable outcomes and should be related to targets in West Sussex Local Transport Plan.

Greenhouse Gases: Gases including water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some human activities are increasing the amount of these gases, in the earth's atmosphere, and is resulting in climate change. 

Greywater Recycling: Water conservation techniques involving the collection, storage, treatment and redistribution of water from sources such as bathing, laundry washing, and household cleaning.

Gross Internal Floorspace: The entire area inside the external walls of a building and internal walls. The difference between gross internal floorspace and gross external area is typically between 2.5 and 5%.

Habitat: The area or environment in which a species or group of species live.

Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA) (Formally known as Appropriate Assessment): The statutory process and documentation required by the Birds and Habitats Directives of the European Union to assess the effects of a plan on a nature conservation site of European importance. The aim is to enable a judgement to be made as to whether there will be an adverse impact on the site's integrity.

High Weald Joint Advisory Unit: Organisation set up to manage the High Weald AONB. It is overseen by the High Weald Joint Advisory Committee.

Historic Landscape Assessment: A study made of the impact of any proposal within or adjacent to an historic park or garden on the character and quality of the site. The report should include appropriate conservation and enhancement measures.

Horsham District Planning Framework (HDPF): The HDPF is the current overarching planning document for Horsham District, and was adopted in 2015. The HDPF sets out the planning strategy for the years up to 2031 to deliver the social, economic and environmental needs of the whole district, as well as looking beyond the district's boundaries. The new Local Plan will replace this document.

Housing Delivery Test: Measures net additional dwellings provided in a local authority area against the homes required, using national statistics and local authority data. The Secretary of State will publish the Housing Delivery Test results for each local authority in England every November.

Housing Trajectory: A tool used to show the past and future housing delivery performance by identifying the predicted provision of housing over the lifespan of a Local Plan.

Independent Examination: Public discussion of selected issues raised by respondents at the Proposed Submission/Publication stage of representations on the Local Plan document(s). The examination takes place before an independent inspector appointed by the Secretary of State reporting to the Council. For Development Plan Documents an examination is held even if there are no representations.

Infilling: The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further development.

Infrastructure: A collective term for structures, services and facilities such as roads, electricity, sewerage, water, education and health provision required for society and the economy to function.

Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP): A document forming part of the evidence base in local plan preparation that assesses the quality and capacity of infrastructure within a local planning authority area and sets out what infrastructure is required to support development. The IDP will be used to inform the funding of infrastructure as a result of CIL.

Joint Area Action Plan (JAAP): Area Action Plans are used to provide the planning framework for areas where significant change or conservation is needed. A key feature of Area Action Plans will be the focus on implementation. They will deliver the planning 'growth' areas and resolve conflicting objectives in the areas subject to the major development pressures. Where more than one local authority is involved in the creation of an Area Action Plan due to 'cross-boundary' strategic development, it can become a jointly created plan. The West of Bewbush JAAP was adopted by Horsham District Council and Crawley Borough Council on 31 July 2009.

Key Employment Areas: Commercial land/premises to be retained for employment use.

Key Worker: An employee, typically in the public sector, who provides an essential service to the community, in areas including the police, health or education.

Landscape Character Assessment: An assessment to identify different landscape areas which have a distinct character based on a recognisable pattern of elements, including combinations of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use and human settlement.

Landscape Led (design approach): A vision and masterplan that works with, rather than against, the existing landscape components and which will root development firmly into the landscape context providing a strong sense of local character to which people can relate and create a sense of community.  The starting point of development proposals is the understanding of the characteristics that are unique to its specific location, it’s local landscape character. These include the natural factors, such as landform, hydrology, biodiversity, geology, soils and climate but also human influences such as historic and current land use and the perceptions of the local community. Layout, form, open spaces, architecture and choice of materials must reflect landscape context and must be integrated with the existing green infrastructure as this will help create a distinctive character and a sense of identity for the new communities but also give communities the development tools needed to become more resilient.

Land Take: The total area of land needed for any given building or development.

Localism Act: Act of Parliament devolving greater power to local councils and giving local communities greater overall control over housing decisions. The Act was given Royal Assent on 15 November 2011.

Local Development Document (LDD): The suite of documents prepared by Local Authorities which made up the Local Development Framework, now Local Plan. These documents include the Statement of Community Involvement, Development Plan Documents (the Local Plan or Core Strategy, Site Allocations, Area Action Plans, Proposals Map, General Development Control Policies) and Supplementary Planning Documents.

Local Development Scheme (LDS): This is a public statement of the Council's programme for the production of Local Development Documents. The scheme will be revised when necessary. This may either be as a result of the Authority Monitoring Report which should identify whether the Council has achieved the timetable set out in the original scheme or if there is a need to revise and/or prepare new Local Development Documents.

Local Economic Partnership (LEP): A LEP is a business-led partnership between local authorities and businesses that plays a central role in determining local economic priorities and undertakes activities to drive economic growth, investment and the creation of local jobs.  The Coast to Capital LEP is focused in the Gatwick Diamond area. 

Local Green Spaces: Are green areas of particular importance to local communities that are designated in Local and Neighbourhood Plans so that they are protected from development.

Local Plan: Local Plans set out a vision and a framework for the future development of the area, addressing needs and opportunities in relation to housing, the economy, community facilities and infrastructure - as well as a basis for safeguarding the environment, adapting to climate change and securing good design for the area they cover. They are a critical tool in guiding decisions about individual development proposals as Local Plans (together with any Neighbourhood Development Plans that have been made) are the starting-point for considering whether applications can be approved. It is important for all areas to put an up to date Local Plan in place to positively guide development decisions.

Local Transport Plan (LTP): Strategies for transport provision prepared by County councils and unitary authorities for their areas (See West Sussex Local Transport Plan).

Main Shopping Area: The area in Horsham town centre where main town centre uses should be concentrated. 

Main Town Centre Uses: Retail development (including warehouse clubs and factory outlet centres); leisure, entertainment and more intensive sport and recreation uses (including cinemas, restaurants, drive-through restaurants, bars and pubs, nightclubs, casinos, health and fitness centres, indoor bowling centres and bingo halls); offices; and arts, culture and tourism development (including theatres, museums, galleries and concert halls, hotels and conference facilities).

Market Housing: Housing either bought or rented on the open market without the involvement of any registered social landlord.

Market Signals: Evidence used to highlight the affordability pressures of an area, particularly for younger people looking to form new households. Where there is evidence of worsening affordability in an area, adjustments can be made to the overall housing target to improve the ability of younger people to form new households.

Masterplan: A type of planning brief outlining the preferred use of land and the overall approach to the layout in order to provide detailed guidance for subsequent planning applications.

Material Consideration: A matter that should be taken into account in deciding a planning application or on an appeal against a planning decision.

Mineral Safeguarding Area: An area designated by West Sussex County Council, the Minerals Planning Authority, which covers known deposits of minerals which are desired to be kept safeguarded from unnecessary sterilisation by non-mineral development.

Ministry for Housing Communities and Local Government (DCLG): Government ministry whichsets policy on local government, housing, urban regeneration, planning and fire and rescue.

Mitigation: A measure which is carried out to reduce the impact of a certain activity/development on the environment.

Multi-court: A hard-surfaced enclosed ball games court which can be used for a variety of sports.

National Design Guide: Part of the Government’s collection of Planning Practice Guidance (PPG) setting out the characteristics of well-designed places and demonstrates what good design means in practice.  Should be read alongside the Design: Process and Tools PPG.

Nationally Described Space Standards: Technical housing standards produced by the Government which deal with internal space within new dwellings.

National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF): Part of the Government’s reforms to make the planning system less complex, more accessible and to promote sustainable growth, it sets out national planning policies.  It was most recently updated in 2019.

Natural Greenspace (NGS): Outdoor places where human control and activities are not intensive so that a feeling of naturalness is allowed to predominate. For the purposes of this plan it includes both natural and semi-natural spaces including "blue" spaces such as rivers.  Natural and semi-natural greenspace exists as a distinct typology but also as discrete areas within the majority of other greenspace typologies. These spaces allow people living in urban areas and villages to experience nature close to home.  Many if not most are managed in ways which provide and protect habitats. 

Nature Recovery Network: is a major commitment in the UK Government's 25-Year Environment Plan, intended to improve, expand and connect habitats to address wildlife decline and provide wider environmental benefits for people.  The Wildlife Trusts promote the NRN as a mechanism to deliver a ‘Wilder Britain’ to create joined-up habitats and help wildlife and people to thrive.

Neighbourhood Development Orders (NDOs): Grant planning permission for specific types of development in a particular area. This could be either a particular development, or a particular class of development. A number of types of development, such as Nationally Significant Infrastructure Projects will be excluded from NDOs.


Neighbourhood Development Plans (NDP): Written by Parish Councils and Neighbourhood Forums to guide land use planning issues. They set out policies and plans for an area, such as the identification of new sites which are acceptable for new local shops. This should not cover broader local concerns or strategic issues such as major development or major public transport infrastructure.

Neighbourhood Plan: See Neighbourhood Development Plans.

Out of Centre: A location which is not in or on the edge of a centre but not necessarily outside the urban area.

Parkway Station: Similar to that of a bus based 'Park and Ride' facility. It is a railway station which has parking facilities allowing user to continue on with the rest of their journey by train.

Park and Ride: Facilities which seek to reduce urban congestion by encouraging motorists to leave their vehicles at a car park on the edge of towns and travel into the centre by public transport, usually buses direct from the parking area.

Park Home: A mobile home which cannot normally be towed by a motor vehicle and which is carried, often in sections on a lorry before being assembled on a permanent or semi-permanent basis in its location.

Passive Solar Energy: Energy provided by a simple architectural design to capture and store the sun's heat. Examples include a garden greenhouse, or south-facing window in a dwelling.

Pitch: A site providing for one Gypsy/Traveller family. A single pitch may be occupied by more than one caravan/mobile home to accommodate an extended family.

Permitted development rights: Rights which allow development to take place without the need for obtaining planning permission.

Planning Condition: Limitation or requirement attached to a planning permission by the planning authority when it is granted. Conditions can cover a wide range of aspects about the development permitted and the process that must be followed to carry out the development. In general, however, they are intended to make the development more acceptable.

Planning Obligations: A legally binding agreement between the local planning authority and persons with an interest in a piece of land. Planning Obligations will have been set out in an agreement often known as a 'Section 106 Agreement' and may be used to prescribe the nature of development, to compensate for loss or damage created by development or to mitigate a development’s impact on surrounding built natural environment. Circular 5/2005 and Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations set out the national policy that regulates these agreements.

Planning Practice Guidance (PPG): Guidance which sets out national guidance on how the Government expects the planning system to work.

Planning Policy for Traveller Sites (PPTS): Sets out national policy in relation to planning for Gypsies/Travellers and Travelling Showpeople.  The PPTS was most recently updated in August 2015.

Plot: A site providing for one Travelling Showperson family.

Primary Retail Frontage: An area within some settlements across Horsham district within which retail uses are favoured over other uses. 

Primary Shopping Area: Defined area where retail development is concentrated.

Proposed Submission or Regulation 19: The last stage at which comments are sought on the content of the Local Plan before Examination. The pre-submission Local Plan and accompanying documents (including representations) are subsequently sent to the Secretary of State and an independent Examination will be held. Following the successful completion of this process, the DPD may be adopted by the Council.

Previously Developed Land: See Brownfield Land.

Protected Habitats:  For the purposes of this Local Plan these include Special Protection Areas (SPAs), Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), National Nature Reserves (NNRs), Ramsar Sites. Regard to these can extend further than the designated sites, for example, the Bat Sustenance Zone which relates to The Mens Special Area for Conservation.

Protected Landscapes: These include Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and National Parks (regard to their settings is also required).  

Protected Species: Plant and animal species afforded protection under certain Government Acts and Regulations.

Retail Frontage: A street frontage containing retail shops and services, found in town/village centres.

Retirement Living (or Sheltered Housing): Housing often as a group of purpose-built flats or bungalows, with limited communal facilities such as a lounge, laundry room and guest room. It does not generally provide care services, but provides some support to enable residents to live independently. This can include 24 hour on-site assistance (alarm) and a warden or house manager.

Retail Hierarchy: An ordering of the town and village centres of an area into a hierarchy so as to distinguish between major, minor and local or neighbourhood retail centres.

Riverine/Aquatic Environment: The natural environment found within or beside a river or waterbody.

Rural Exception Site: Small sites used for affordable housing in perpetuity where sites would not normally be used for housing. Rural exception sites seek to address the needs of the local community by accommodating households who are either current residents or have an existing family or employment connection.

Rural Hub: A central point of activity within the rural area which complements the functions of larger surrounding settlements.

Rural Workers: Those who are employed in rural businesses who need to be in immediate vicinity of their place of work to enable the proper functioning of the enterprise (e.g. agricultural or forestry).

Scheduled Ancient Monument: A list of ancient monuments held by Historic England, who's preservation is given priority over other land-uses. (See Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979).

Secondary Settlements: Very small villages and hamlets that generally have some limited local employment, services or facilities (which may include primary schools, allotments, village halls, playing fields, or a church) and/or evidence of a defined local community.

Sense of Place: The strong identity of a particular place that is deeply felt by inhabitants and visitors. Urban and rural areas have a different sense of place as do the different villages and towns in Horsham District. It is the collection of qualities and characteristics - visual, cultural, social and environmental - that provide meaning to a location and different from another.

Settlement Coalescence: The development of Greenfield land between two urban areas which results in those two areas becoming 'joined' to form one large urban area.

Settlement Hierarchy: Settlements are categorised in a hierarchy based on their characteristics and functions e.g. level of facilities, accessibility and community networks.

Self-build: See Custom Build

Self-contained: Accommodation that has all the normal domestic facilities of a home including bedrooms, lounge room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry within one building.

Sequential Approach: A planning principle that seeks to identify, allocate or develop certain types of locations of land before others. For example, brownfield sites before greenfield sites, or town centre retail sites before out-of-centre sites. In terms of employment a sequential approach would favour an employment use over mixed used and mixed use over non-employment uses.

Sheltered Housing: See Retirement Housing

Smaller Sites: These are site allocations which will contain fewer than 500 homes and therefore not classified as Strategic Site Allocations.

Smart Growth: Redevelopment that would result in an intensification of use in the same area that would not adversely impact on surrounding areas.

Sound: A Development Plan Document is considered sound if it is based on evidence and has been prepared in accordance with all the necessary legal and procedural requirements including the measures set out in the authority's Statement of Community Involvement. 

South Downs National Park: The South Downs National Park is England's newest National Park, having become fully operational on 1 April 2011. The park, covering an area of 1,627 square kilometres (628 sq mi) in Southern England, stretches for 140 kilometres (87 mi) from Winchester in the west to Eastbourne in the east through the countries of Hampshire, West Sussex and East Sussex.

Spatial Planning: Spatial planning goes beyond traditional land use planning to bring together and integrate policies and programmes for the development and use of land. Spatial planning influences the nature of places and how they function. It includes policies which can impact on land use - For example, influencing the demands on or needs for development that are not capable of being delivered solely or mainly through the granting of planning permission and may be delivered through other means.

Spatial Strategy/Visions: A broad overview of how spatial planning objectives can be achieved within the development plan.

Specialist Care Housing: Housing as an alternative provision to a care home for persons from a range of age groups including for the frail elderly and requiring varying levels of direct medical or other personal care by staff who are often site based.

Standard Housing Methodology (Standard Method): A formula set by Government and used by all local authorities in England to identify the minimum number of homes expected to be planned for, in a way which addresses projected household growth and historic under-supply.

Statement of Community Involvement (SCI): Sets out the standards which the plan making authority intend to achieve in relation to involving the community in the preparation, alteration and continuing review of all Local Development Documents (LDDs) and detailing with planning applications. It also sets out how the local planning authority intends to achieve those standards. A consultation statement showing how the local planning authority has complied with the Statement of Community Involvement will be required for all Local Development Documents.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): See Sustainability Appraisal

Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA): An assessment of flood risk at a strategic level across a local planning authority area. The National Planning Policy Framework requires local planning authorities to undertake a strategic flood risk assessment to understand the risk of flooding in their areas to help inform strategic policies.

Strategic Housing and Employment Land Availability Assessment (SHELAA): An assessment required by national policy to identify land for housing and employment and assess the deliverability and development of sites. The SHELAA is a key component of the evidence base used to support the delivery of sufficient land for housing to meet the community's need for more homes and for employment land in order to provide sufficient jobs for residents in the district.

Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA): Establishes the long-term aims for housing supply and demand in West Sussex. It provides local authorities with a better understanding of their housing markets and a robust evidence base for new planning and housing policies.

Strategic Site Allocation: A location for development which is required to ensure a continued delivery of housing sites. The largest strategic sites are 800 homes or more. Site specific details are specified within the draft Local Plan.

Strategic Road Network (SRN): A road network designated in the West Sussex Structure Plan, comprising of the M23 motorway, the trunk roads, and some other class A roads of more than local importance. These are the main routes which are best able to cater for trips starting or ending outside West Sussex.

Student Accommodation: this is accommodation provided on a campus to meet the needs of a resident student population.

Submission Stage or Regulation 19: The final stage in preparation of Development Plan Documents (DPDs). The documents are sent to the Secretary of State and an independent Examination will be held. Following the successful completion of this process, the DPD may be adopted by the Council.

Sui-Generis: Term given to specific uses of land or buildings, not falling into any of the use classes identified by the Use Classes Order, for example, theatres, launderettes, car showrooms and filling stations.

Supplementary Planning Documents (SPD): Supplementary Planning Documents may cover a range of issues, both topic and site specific, which may expand policy or provide further detail to policies contained in a Development Plan Document, where they can help applicants make successful applications or aid infrastructure delivery.

Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is commonly defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Principles of sustainable development include social progress that recognises the needs of everyone, effective protection of the environment, prudent use of natural resources and high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. The Planning definition of sustainable development is set out in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF).

Sustainability: Defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development as 'development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need.'

Sustainability Appraisal (SA)/Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): It is a legal requirement that certain documents (e.g. Local Development Documents) are assessed to ensure that they maximise their contribution to Sustainable Development. This is achieved by carrying out a process usually referred to as a Sustainability Appraisal. The process measures the effect a document will have on a range of social, environmental and economic issues, and suggests measures that would help improve the sustainability of a plan.

Total Access Demand (TAD): A method devised by the Council and District Councils in West Sussex to calculate planning obligations for sustainable transport. TAD comprises two interrelated elements: a Sustainable Access contribution in respect of per occupant or employee without a parking space. The differential between the two elements is designed to encourage the development of accessible site and to discourage the over provision of car parking spaces so as to promote sustainable transport options. The TAD methodology and contribution levels are set out in the Council's Planning Obligations Supplementary Planning Document.

Town Centre: Includes a range of different sized centres, including market and country towns, traditional suburban centres, and quite often, the principal centre(s) in a local authority's area.

Town Centre Management: A forum of traders, businesses and local authorities to agree and undertake co-ordinated overseeing of the retail environment and funding improvements.

Transport Node: An interchange point where passengers may transfer from one type of transport to another, for example at a railway station or a park and ride.

Travelling Showpeople: The Government defines Travelling Showpeople as members of a group organised for the purposes of holding fairs, circuses or shows (whether or not travelling together as such). This includes such persons who on the grounds of their own or their family’s or dependants’ more localised pattern of trading, educational or health needs or old age have ceased to travel temporarily, but excludes Gypsies and Travellers

Tree and Landscape Led (design approach): The starting point of development proposals is the recording of the existing trees, landscape, their context and key features including contours and orientation.  This is then used to inform where best to plant additional trees, hedgerows and retain as open landscape which then provides the framework for any future development layout.  

Tree Preservation Order (TPO): A mechanism for securing the preservation of single or groups of trees of acknowledged amenity value which may be under threat.

Unstable Land: Land that may be unstable (due to a range of factors) for which planning proposals should give due consideration.

Urban Design: The art of making places. It involves the design of buildings, groups of buildings, spaces and landscapes, in villages, towns and cities, and the establishment of frameworks and processes, which facilitate successful development.

Urbanising: Making a location more urban in character, for example through a combination of increased density of development, traffic flow and economic activity.

Urban Extension: Involves the expansion of a city or densely populated area, and can contribute to creating more sustainable patterns of development when located in the right place, with well-planned infrastructure including access to a range of facilities, and when developed at appropriate densities.

Urban Regeneration: Making an urban area develop or grow strong again through means such as job creation and environmental renewal.

Use Class Order: The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (As amended in 1995, 2005 and 2013) puts uses of land and buildings into various categories. Planning Permission is not needed for changes of use within the same use class.

Viability (in context of development costs and deliverability):  A development is considered viable if, after taking account of all costs, including central and local government policy and regulatory costs and the cost and availability of development finance, the scheme provides a competitive return to the developer to ensure that development takes place and generates a land value sufficient to persuade the landowner to sell the land for the development proposed.

Village Design Statement: A document which describes the visual character of a village as seen through the eyes of the inhabitants. Residents of an interested village volunteer to undertake a study of their village and environment and through consultation and discussion determine what they feel this to be.

Vitality and Viability: In terms of retailing, vitality is the capacity of a centre to grow or develop a level of commercial activity. Viability is the capacity of a centre to achieve the commercial success necessary to sustain the existence of the centre.

Ward: A small sub-area of a local authority district.

Waterbody: A distinct and significant volume of fresh water.

Waste Collection Authority (WCA): The local authority that has a duty to collect household waste. They also have a duty to collect commercial waste if requested to do so and may also collect industrial waste. (The WCA may differ from the Waste Disposal Authority). HDC is the WCA for this district.

Waste Disposal Authority (WDA): The local authority responsible for managing the waste collected by the collection authorities and the provision of Household Waste Recovery Centres. (The WDA may differ from the Waste Collection Authority). West Sussex is the WDA for this district.

Waste Hierarchy: A framework for securing a sustainable approach to waste management. Wherever possible, the level of waste produced should be reduced. Where this is not possible, waste should be reused; and after this, the value recovered by recycling or composting; or waste to energy; and finally landfill disposal.

Waste Minimisation/Reduction: The most desirable way of managing waste, by avoiding the production of waste in the first place.

Waste Planning Authority (WPA): The local authority responsible for ensuring that an adequate planning framework exists. They are required to prepare Local Development Document(s), or Development Plans, relating to waste and are responsible for determining planning applications for waste management facilities.

Waste Transfer Station: A site to which waste is delivered for sorting or baling prior to transfer to another place for recycling, treatment or disposal.

Water Course: A channel through which a moving body of water will flow, above or below ground. This includes685 rivers and streams as well as drainage ditches.

Water Framework Directive: European legislation designed to improve and integrate the way water bodies are managed throughout Europe. Member states must have achieved good chemical and ecological status in inland and coastal waters by 2015. This legislation is still part of UK law at the current time.

West Sussex Historic Environment Record: Set of data managed by West Sussex County Council, linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS).  Contains a summary of known historic assets in West Sussex.

West Sussex Local Transport Plan (LTP): A ten year plan setting out key strategic transport objectives and outlining broad strategies that will be pursued to meet the objectives. The LTP must tie-in with the broader strategic planning framework set out in local and national policies.

Windfall Sites: A site not specifically allocated for development in the Local Development Framework which unexpectedly becomes available for development during the lifetime of a plan. These sites are usually located within Built-up area boundaries.  An allowance for windfall sites is included in the Local Plan for monitoring purposes.

Written Statement: A documentary statement supplementing and explaining policy, forming part of a development plan.